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Wales was once a fragmented land of ancient kingdoms. Its rulers were independent princes, bonded by common language and laws. Over the centuries, Wales’s borders have shifted and changed.

For countless generations family feuds were frequent and rivalries were rife. But a mighty dynasty came to dominate in the 13th century. The princes of Gwynedd were the first to rule over the entire country, bringing unity to native Wales.

But it was no easy task. After 1066 the native princes found themselves pitted against land-hungry pirates knocking at their door: the Normans.